Cargo Securing:Securing cargo for road, rail, air and ship traffic.
(1) The cargo, including equipment to secure cargo and loading facilities shall be stowed and secured so that they do not slip even under emergency braking or sudden evasive movement, fall over, creating defects and forth, drop or noise have to be avoidable. Here, the accepted rules of technology are considered.
§ 22 Section 1 of the Road Standards (German Highway Code) requires that the load must be packed and secured in that way, that they do not slip even under emergency braking or sudden evasive movement, fall over, creating defects and forth, drop or create unavoidable noise. Here, the accepted rules of technology must be observed, please note EN 12195 - 1 and VDI Guidelines.
The freight must be secured against the forces:
Physical forces, which occurs while road transport e.g.:
- during acceleration to the rear (acceleration-force)
- braking in the direction (brake- force)
- when rounding curves on the sides (centrifugal force)
- on rough roads vertically (weight)
- in addition, additional oscillations occur during the transport
At the waterway also heavy sea and on the railroad, the account over a hump is to be considered.
The responsibility lies with the driver of the cargo security, the holder and shippers.
Violations can in the field of administrative law (general traffic control and traffic accident with property damage) with fines and points will be punished in their driving licenses. A crime (such as traffic accidents involving personal injury) shall be punishable by fine or imprisonment.
Basically,we distinguish two types of load protection:
The positive- and nonpositive protection. Positive means that the load is positioned against the front, a sidewall, or against load- retaining stanchions. Wedges are also used, which must be firmly attached to the loading surface. Example: The loading surface of a truck is completely loaded with containers. Nonpositive means that the friction becomes between the cargo and the loading surface is increased. Here, we distinguish between lashing down and diagonal lashing. Example: A wooden crate is lashed down to the loading surface with lashing belts. Naturally, a combination of positive and nonpositive ways load may be applied to secure a load. Example: A truck with stanchion walls is filled to one half with containers ( positive securing of the load). In order to prevent the cargo from slipping backwards, the last row of containers is lashed down ( nonpositive securing of the load).
The lashing- down method: Lashing- down is the most frequently used technique to secure a load. Pressure is exerted on the load, thereby increasing the frictional forces between loads and loading surface. The ratchet of the lashing belt produces the pressure. Placing GeRon anti- slide mats between loads and loading surface can be increase friction considerably, thus further contributing to the prevention of load slide.
In slant or diagonal lashing the load is not pressed into the loading platform. Instead, it is held in position by taut lateral lashing belts. This ascertains that even very heavy loads are securely fastened. In this kind of lashing it is important to know the maximum tension that may be applied to the belts. You will find an indication printed on the GeRon blue safety label.
At least eight lashing belts are required in slant lashing. These are fastened perpendicular to the four wheels of the loading platform. Four lashing belts are needed in diagonal lashing, which are not fastened in a right angle, but diagonally from the corners of the loading platform.
Note: Lashing secures the load in all directions!
The statements above are excerpts, without claim to completeness. For further information please refer to the GeRon instructions- full information please see EN 12195 -. 2, EN 1492-1, EN 1492-2.